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प्रकाशन

Reporton

Identification and Analysis of Hazardous and Risky Works in Textile Industries of Nepal

Submitted to:

Department of Labour (DoL)

Minbhaban, Kathmandu

Nepal

 

Submitted by:

 

GIEF Consultancy

Gaushala, Kathmandu

Nepal

 

 

March, 2017

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

 

GIEF Consultancy would like to express its sincere thanks to the Occupational Safety and Health Project (OSHP) and especially to the Mr, Barun Kumar Jha, Project Chief for entrusting us for the preparation of report on “Identification and Analysis of Hazardous and Risky Works in Textile Industries of Nepal”. Similarly, we are grateful to Mr. YogeshworGharti, Electrical Engineer, Md. MontassirAalam, Engineer, Mr. Deepak Lekhak, Senior Lab Assistant and other staff from OSHP for their valuable support during the study and preparation of this report.

 

We take this opportunity also to thank all the Textile Industries for their support and for their valuable input.  Moreover, GIEF would like to express its kind thanks to the concerned organizations and authors of the relevant documents, which have been consulted in the work. Without their kind support this report would have not appeared in present form.

 

 

GIEF Consultancy

March 2017

 

                                                                                                                                               

 

Executive Summary

International Labor Organization (ILO) defines Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) should aim at; the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations; the prevention among workers of adverse effects on health caused by their working conditions; the protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to health; the placing and maintenance of workers in an occupational environment adapted to physical and mental needs; and the adaptation of work to humans.

 

According to the Census of Manufacturing Establishments (CME) published by the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), manufacturing units, which numbered 15 in 1950/51 increased to 3,633 in 1986/87 and to 4,271 in 1991/92; has again declined to 3,557 in 1996/97; to 3,213 in 2001/02 and to 3,446 in 2006/2007 and has increase to 4,076 2010/11. The numbers do not include tiny units which employ less than ten persons. It is estimated that in 2010/11 these units employed 194,989 persons (CBS, 2014). As per the CBS 2011/12 total 153 different kinds of textile industries are in operation in Nepal. More than 17 thousand of the directly employees are working in these industries.  Most of these industries are located in Kathmandu valley and Terai region of Nepal.

 

Textiles are fibres that are spun into yarn or made into fabric by weaving, knitting, braiding, and felting. The term is now applicable to natural and synthetic filaments, yarns, and threads as well as to the woven, knitted, felted, tufted, braided, bonded, knotted, and embroidered fabrics. The spinning and weaving were one of the first crafts that is believed to have been practiced as early as the New Stone Age. In ancient Egypt, the earliest textiles were woven from flax in India, Peru, and Cambodia, from cotton in the Southern European; from wool in China.

 

Many types of occupational hazards presence in all textile industries. The Mechanical, physical, chemical, Ergonomic and physiological hazards are the prime which effect the worker health as well as productivity of industry. Exposure of cotton disease called Bysinosis found in many cotton textile mill workers.

The study found that accumulation of workers, improper condition of the machine, high noise level, ergonomic problem faced by the worker, dust problems, poor lighting, ventilation and unaware of personal protective equipment are main OHS issues in these industries. The workers are uneducated and most of them do not know OHS concern at workplace.

Exposure of Noise, dust, high heat/humidity and risk of fire are major occupational risk in all textile industries. Exposure of dyes and chemical were found very high where dyeing process doing in textile industries. Housekeeping is the common problems for these all industries.

The management of many textile industrieshas the misconception that Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) issues are cost demanding and hard to apply OSH provision and hence they try to keep it at the lowest level of priority. There is a great need for prevention and control of risks and hazards in textile industries in Nepal. Low and no cost measures can contribute significantly in the improvementOSH conditions.Since Government of Nepal is not fixed the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL), therefore international PEL should be considered. The following common potential options can be recommendingfor improving the existing OSH situation:

1.      Conduct risk assessment at least once in every year.

2.      Aware and trained the all employees about cotton dust affects health.

3.      Conduct periodic health checkup to the affected workers

4.      Installation of effective dust control system.

5.      Isolation of the machine and silencer must be kept.

6.      Installation of Inverted drive control in ring frame for noise reduction.

7.      Proper maintenance lubricating control noise

8.      Avoid spillage of dyes and chemicals by improving chemical handling practices.

9.      Proper storage and handling of dyes and chemicals.

10.      Cover V – belt properly in all machineries.

11.      Improve the electric wiring.

12.      Arrange of first aid box.

13.      Keep the MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) of dyes & chemicals.

14.      Make push pull ventilation in machine line for prevention of heat and smoke exposure.

15.      Make facilities for provision of firefighting system.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Acknowledgement. I

Executive Summary. II

Table Of Content. IV

List Of Abbreviation. V

  1. Introduction. 1

1.1         Background. 1

1.2         Industrial Sector Development In Nepal 2

1.3         Local Context. 4

  1. Objective. 5
  2. Scope Of The Work. 5
  3. Methodology. 6
  4. Textile Industries. 7
  5. Textile Process Review.. 10

6.1         Raw Materials In Textile Industries. 10

6.2         Production Process Of Textiles Industries. 10

  1. Occupational Risk And Hazards In Textile Industries. 18
  2. Present Situation Of Risk And Hazards In Visited Industries. 23
  3. Legislation And Standards. 28
  4. Conclusion And Recommendation. 29
  5. References. 35

 

 

List of abbreviation

 

ACGIH -American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist
CBS -Central Bureau of Statistics
CME – Census of Manufacturing Establishment
CP -Cleaner Production
dBA -decibels A-weighted
DOL -Department of Labour
HSE -Health and Safety Executive
ILO -International Labour Organization
mg/m3 -Milligram per meter cube
MoLEP -Ministry of Labour and Employment Promotion
MoPE -Ministry of Population and Environment
MSD – Musculoskeletal disorders
MSDS – Material Safety Data Sheets
OSH -Occupational Safety and Health
OSHA -Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OSHP -Occupational Safety and Health Project
PEL -Permissible Exposure Limit
PPE -Personal Protecting Equipment
S. N. -Serial Number
TLV -Threshold Limit Value

 

 

1.          Introduction

1.1  Background

Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) is a discipline with a broad scope involving many specialized fields. It should aim at; the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations; the prevention among workers of adverse effects on health caused by their working conditions; the protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to health; the placing and maintenance of workers in an occupational environment adapted to physical and mental needs; and the adaptation of work to humansdefine by the ILO.

 

OSHsituation of any work places should be free from risk and hazards. For the achievement of better OSH condition,participation of employers and employees in safety and health programs is must. OSH considers the issues relating to occupational medicine, industrial hygiene, toxicology, safety and health education, engineering safety, ergonomics and psychology.

 

Poor OSH conditions of any type have the potential to affect a worker’s health and safety.  Unhealthy or unsafe working conditions are not limited to industries; they can be found anywhere, whether the workplace is indoors or outdoors. Polluted working conditions can also affect the environment where workers live in, since the working and living environments are the same for many workers. This means that occupational hazards can have harmful effects on workers, their families, and other people in the community.

There are various kinds of hazards exist in workplace of the textile industries. There are obvious unsafe working conditions, such as unguarded machinery, slippery floors or inadequate fire precautions, but there are also a number of categories of insidious hazards (that is, those hazards that are dangerous but which may not be obvious) including:

  • chemical hazards, arising from liquids, solids, dusts, fumes, vapours and gases;
  • physical hazards, such as noise, vibration, unsatisfactory lighting, radiation, humidity and extreme temperatures;
  • biological hazards, such as bacteria, viruses, infectious waste and infestations;
  • psychological hazards resulting from stress and strain;
  • physiological hazards (ergonomics)such as badly designed machinery, mechanical devices and tools used by workers, improper seating and workstation design, or poorly designed work practices.

Most of the workers in Nepal face a combination of these hazards at work. For example, it is not difficult to imagine a workplace workers exposed to chemicals, unguarded machine, poor illumination, noisy machines, hot temperatures, slippery floors, etc. all at the same time and sometimes same person.

As per the findings of International LabourOrganisation (ILO), some occupational diseases have been recognized for many years, and affect the workers in different ways depending on the nature of the hazard, the route of exposure and the dose. Some well-known occupational diseases include: asbestosis (caused by asbestos); byssinosis (caused by cotton dust); silicosis (caused by silica); lead poisoning (caused by lead); and noise-induced hearing loss (caused by noise).

There are also numbers of potentially crippling health problems that can be associated with poor working conditions, including: heart disease; musculoskeletal disorders such as permanent back injuries or muscle disorders; allergies; reproductive problems; and stress-related disorders.

Although many more findings on occupational hazards have revealed by now from the research and study compared to the past and even today every year new chemicals and new technologies are being introduced which present new and often unknown hazards to workers. These new and unknown hazards pose great challenges to workers, employers, educators, and scientists, that is to everyone concerned about workers’ health. The effects of these hazardous agents in the environment are also a matter of concerned.

1.2  Industrial Sector Development in Nepal

Nepal continues to be a predominantly agricultural economy with around three fourth of its workforce employed in the agricultural sector. The manufacturing sector employed just 6.6 per cent of the total workforce (NLFS 2008). The contribution of manufacturing to total GDP was a minimal 6 per cent in 2010. Value added from textiles significantly decreased over the years. It decreased by 6 percentage points from 2006 to 2011 and by 22 percentage points from 1996 to 2011.The number of industries in textiles significantly decreased by 8 percentage points from 2006 to 2011 and by 16 percentage points from 1996 to 2011. Textiles, which were the primary manufacturing industries in the 1996, seems to have been replaced by food & beverages and non-metallic products.

 

Government of Nepal has accorded high priority to the improvement of the manufacturing sector since 1950s. During the 1950s and 1960s, Government of Nepal received aid commitments from the Soviet Union and China to develop a few government-owned industries. Most of these industries used agricultural products such as jute, sugar, and tea as raw materials. Other industries were dependent on various inputs imported from other countries, mainly India. Relatively small by international standards, most of the industries established in the 1950s and 1960s were developed with government protection.Nepal’s manufacturing sector has not performed as the engine of growth. In fact, its share in GDP gradually declined from 9.0 per cent in 2000/01 to 6.2 per cent in 2012/13.

 

According to the Census of Manufacturing Establishments published by the Central Bureau of Statistics, manufacturing units, which numbered 15 in 1950/51 increased to 3,633 in 1986/87 and to 4,271 in 1991/92; has again declined to 3,557 in 1996/97; to 3,213 in 2001/02 and to 3,446 in 2006/2007 and has increase to 4,076 2010/11. The numbers do not include tiny units which employ less than ten persons. It is estimated that in 2010/11 these units employed 194,989 persons (CBS, 2014).

 

The National Census of Manufacturing Establishment (NCME-2011/12) reveals that there have been 18.3 percentages in total number of operating establishments as compared to the previous census 2006/2007. During the last inter census period (2006/07 to 2011/12) the number of manufacturing establishments found to be increased were establishment engaged in food and beverage; tobacco products; wearing apparel; leather, leather products and footwear; wood products; fabricated metal products; rubber and plastics products; nonmetallic mineral products; fabricated metal products; machinery and equipment; furniture manufacturing. At the same time number of manufacturing establishments in Dyeing; printing and publishing; basic metal; other transport equipment has decreased in to last CME- 2006/07.

 

With the increment of number of operating establishments, the number of persons engaged and number of person’s employee have increased by 15.1 and 14.8 percent respectively. This increment is most probably due to increased number of establishments in food and beverages, non-metallic mineral products; fabricated metal products; furniture manufacturing; rubber and plastic products; wood products.

 

The industrial development in the country spurs to generation of different kinds of risk and hazards to the employees. It also generates solid, liquid and gaseous wastes which harm the neighbors and community. In course of the generation of these risk and hazards in some categories of industry is relatively very high.  It has been observed that due the lack of legal provisions and enforcements in the country and the adequate awareness, the employees are working in this hazardous situation without using minimum protection in the most of the industrial establishments.

1.3  Local Context

Awareness on OSH aspects is also raised in textile industries of Nepal. Industries of this sector now think labour productivity can improve if they take into consideration that the employees safety and health problems arise from the unwanted risk and hazard generated from different process, using chemicals and raw materials, using machineries and wastes.

Working conditions in the majority of Nepalese textileindustries are not satisfactory. Working environment of thetextile industries are hazardous and risky mainly due to either the nature of the industries itself hazardous and risky or poorly managed or both. The workers are exposed to excessive noise, poor illumination, dust/fiber, heat stress, poor working posture and harmful chemicals (heavy metals, dyes and unknown chemicals). The rate of occupational accidents and diseases are very high in these industries resulting in loss of working periods.

National data of occupational accident and diseases is not properly available. Due to lack of database and information regarding occupational accident and diseases actual cause and effects cannot explain.In the all related law, rules, regulation treated the all industries through single eye either they are hazardous and risky in nature or not. So, no any special criteria developed to define the industries hazardous or others.

Internationally recognized some occupational diseases also may found in Nepal but lacks of proper research and confirmation not easy to say in this sector. But in the context of occupational accident some news and information can be got from news media and concern agencies and based on this, we can say that particular sector is an accident prone industrial sector.

The existing working environment in this sector’s Nepalese industries clearly shows the need to improve the conditions. The poor working environment is giving rise to frequent accidents, material damages, low quality product and low productivity. Many types of occupational diseases have also resulted due to long working in unsafe work place and unsafe working environment. This, in turn, results in lower labour productivity and increased medical costs, absenteeism and cost of production. The situation calls for strong need for improvement through giving proper training as well as technical inputs to the owner /management as well as the work-force of these industries.

Ministry of Labour and Employment Promotion (MoLEP), Department of Labour  (DoL) and Occupational Safety and Health Project (OSHP) are the responsible agencies of the government with regards to OSH in Nepal. However, promotional as well as enforcement aspects are found to be very weak in textile sector.

No standards have been promulgated yet for any sectors of the industries including textile. Therefore, legislative and reactive approach is falling behind. It seems it will take a long time for OSH standards to be formulated, promulgated and effectively enforced. The situation in the country also sets its priority to other immediately important considerations such as security, health and education. This leaves scope for voluntary and promotional measures only for the improvement of working conditions.

Most industries do not have the basic minimum welfare facilities. Most of these industries do not have adequately trained personnel nor do they hire experts to take care of such poor work environment. Awareness level on own safety and health of the work force is also very low in textile industries. The personal protective equipments (PPE’s) are not available in most cases and due to low level of awareness, available PPE are also not effectively used.

In such a context, preparation of a report on identification of hazardous and risky work in Textilesectors of Nepal for giving higher priority in the improvement of the existing working condition in these industries by the authority.

With a view to assist in this process further, Occupational Safety and Health Project(OSHP) desires to have a study and prepare a report on that. OSHP has the intention of making available of such report to the interested industries or people/experts/consultants. For this purpose, OSHP has awarded GIEF Consultancy to study and prepare a report on above subject.

 

2.          Objective

The objective of study is to prepare a report on the Identification and Analysis of hazardous and risky works in Textile Industries of Nepal.

 

3.          Scope of the work

The scope of the work are as follows:

  1. Collection of related reports, literature, standards and publications from concern agencies.
  2. Collection of Primary data of Physical, Chemical and Mechanical Hazards from 5 Textile industries of Kathmandu Valley, Parsa and Bara Districts.
  3. Analyze the primary and secondary data
  4. Preparation of the draft report with recommendation (how to eliminate these hazards or if not possible to eliminate these hazard then how to minimize these hazards) in context of Nepal and submit to OSHP for comments and feedback.
  5. Incorporation of relevant suggestions and feedback given by OSHP and finalize the report
  6. Submit the final report to OSHP.

 

 

4.          Methodology

The methodology adopted for the preparation of the report is as follow:

  • The report is based on the primary and secondary information.
  • International norms and expert opinion is considered for the studies.
  • Books, publications, reports, literature and internet sites will be used for the description of the sector and Nepalese context.
  • Primary data were collected by site visit and measurement with equipment’s.
  • The comments and suggestions from OSHP will be studied and relevant comments and suggestions will be incorporated to finalize the report.

 

5.          TextileIndustries

Textiles are fibres that are spun into yarn or made into fabric by weaving, knitting, braiding, and felting. The term is now applicable to natural and synthetic filaments, yarns, and threads as well as to the woven, knitted, felted, tufted, braided, bonded, knotted, and embroidered fabrics. The spinning and weaving were one of the first crafts that is believed to have been practiced as early as the New Stone Age. In ancient Egypt, the earliest textiles were woven from flax in India, Peru, and Cambodia, from cotton in the Southern European; from wool in China.

 

The Textile industry can be split into a number of sub sectors:

  • the treatment of raw materials, i.e. the preparation or production of various textiles fibres, and/or the manufacture of yarns such as through spinning
  • “natural” fibres, including cotton, wool, and silk
  • “man-made” fibres, including cellulosic fibres such as viscose, synthetic fibres such as polyester, and fibres from inorganic materials such as glass
  • the production of knitted and woven fabrics (i.e. knitting and weaving)
  • finishing activities such as bleaching, printing, and dyeing
  • the transformation of the fabrics into goods, including the “clothing” industry, carpets and other textile floor covering manufacture, the production of home textiles such as bed linen, and the manufacture of technical or ‘industrial’ textiles.

 

The textile and clothing sector in world is changing as a result of developing technology and economic conditions, with businesses restructuring, modernizing, and adapting to technological change. There is a trend of moving away from mass production of simple products towards a wider variety of products with a higher added value. The technical and industrial product subsector in particular is an area where European producers are world leaders.

 

The initial stage of textile manufacturing involves the production of the raw material either by farmers who raise cotton, sheep, silkworms, or flax or by chemists who produce fibre from various basic substances by chemical processes. The fibre is spun into yarn, which is then processed into fabric in a weaving or knitting mill. After dyeing and finishing, the woven material is ready for delivery either directly to a manufacturer of textile products to finally get stitched into clothes that we wear.

 

Textile industries involve diverse operations including fiber synthesis, weaving, manufacturing, dyeing and finishing.The textile industry is primarily concerned with the design and production of yarnclothclothing, and their distribution. The raw material may be natural, or synthetic using products of the chemical industry.

 

The textile sector plays an important role in the country’s economy, providing employment to a significant population in rural and urban areas. There is evidence fromsome studies in India about health risks to industry workers. Suryakar et al carried out a study to assess exposure effects of cotton dust on oxidant and antioxidant status, which may induce, related health hazards. Another article by Agnihotram provided a review of existing evidence from community based epidemiological studies and addressed the growing need for evidence-based occupational health research in India. Knutsson focuses on major disease related to shift work such as sleep disorders and risk of accidents. The effects of shift work on physiological function through disruption of circadian rhythms are well described. Knutsson also provides a model to summarize possible mechanisms of disease in shift workers.

 

Metgud et al conducted an observational cross-sectional study on a sample of 100 women workers with respect to their cardiorespiratory and musculo-skeletal profile before, during and at the end of work, Sant et al have studied the adverse effect of smoke/flue on lung functions of glass factory workers of Firozabad district. Müezzino, Spiro and Stigliani and Hendrickson et al have reported the adverse health impacts of textile effluents. The textiles sector contains many hazards and risks to workers, ranging from exposure to noise and dangerous substances, to manual handling and working with dangerous machinery.

 

Textile industries in Bara-Parsa Industrial Corridor

Textile industries in Bara-Parsa Industrial Corridor are virtually on their deathbed, thanks to indifferent government policies, militant trade unionism and power crisis. Lack of subsidy in finished products and raw material import by the government have further added to their woes.This has resulted in the shutdown of a majority of textile industries located in the corridor over the last one decade. One of the shut industries is Annapurna Textiles, the second largest industry after Hetauda Textiles in the country. Currently around 100 textile industries are under operation in the country, down from 300 in heydays. Of the 100 that are running, 50 are operating in Bara-Parsa Corridor.

 

Pitamber Munka, secretary of Birgunj Chamber of Commerce and Industries (BCCI), said around 50,000 workers have already lost their jobs. “Countries like India and China have not imposed Value Added Tax (VAT) on textiles and given 50 percent waiver on tax, whereas in Nepal the government has imposed VAT and other taxes,” said Munka, who also heads the textiles division of BCCI.Import of cheap products from China and smuggling from India have put domestic industries at high risk. “Nepal used to export textile products to India and other third countries, now we’ve become the net importer of textiles,” said Munka. While the domestic demand for textiles is more than 330 million metre, the domestic production accounts only 70 million metre.

 

Textile industries pay more than Rs 1 billion every year as tax to the government, including both the income tax and VAT. “A separate textile policy is needed to make the country self-reliant in textile production and to revive this industry,” said Munka.Textile industries currently under operation include Triveni, Tanus, Crown, Nippo, Pragati, New Anil, Eastern, Ankita, Arnika and Nobel.  The operating industries have been producing around 90 percent synthetic polyester and 10 percent cotton clothes that cost between Rs 55 and Rs 125 per meter. “While the country is self-reliant in synthetic fiber, it imports most of the cotton thread and raw materials for these clothes’ production,” Munka said.

 

Ramesh Gadia, manager of Nobel Textiles, said clothes’ export, which had been around Rs 1 billion annually until last two decades, has dropped down to the lowermost. Demanding that the government provide subsidies in textiles, Gadia said the use of these textile products are limited to school uniforms only due to growing use of ready-made garments which are mostly imported.The government charges 13 percent VAT on polyester products, while the import duty is an additional 5 percent. “This has made domestic textile products incompetent as compared to cheaper Indian products,” said Gadia.

 

Number of Industries and Labour Structure

As per the CBS 2011/12total 153 different kinds of textile industries are in operation in Nepal. More than 17 thousand of the directly employees are working in these industries. Most of these industries are located in Kathmandu valley and Terai region of Nepal.

 

SN Types of Textile Industries No. of Industries Total Employees
1 Preparation and spinning of textile fibres 12 8,568
2 Weaving of textiles 109 7,949
3 Finishing of textiles 6 78
4 Manufacture of made-up textile articles, except apparel 15 265
5 Manufacture of other textiles n.e.c. 11 161
Total 153 17,021

 

Visited Textile Industries

During the study six textiles industries were visited which are located in Bara, Parsa district and Kathmandu valley. Total 654 workers including 27 women working in these 6 industries.

SN Name of Textiles industries Mill Location Number of Workers Remarks
M F
1 Aarnika Processing Industries Pvt. Ltd. Parwanipur, Parsa 152 0
2 Ankita Textile Parwanipur, Parsa 18 0
3 Kriti Textile Industries Pvt. Ltd. Byasi-15, Industrial area, Bhaktapur 17 12
4 Nepo Industries Pvt. Ltd. Sallaghari, Bhaktpur 150 15
5 Shree Siddhi Textile Parwanipur, Parsa 60 0
6 Triveni Textiles Industries Pvt. Ltd. Nitanpur, Bara 230 0
Total 627 27

6.          TextileProcess Review

6.1  Raw Materials in Textile industries

6.1.1    Raw Materials

  1. Cotton or Cotton Fiber
  2. Synthetic Fibers (Viscos, Polyster)
  3. Thread (cotton, synthetic)

 

6.1.2    Chemicals and Dyestuffs

The following chemicals and dyes are using in textile industries:

  • Caustic Soda
  • Acetic acid
  • Soda Ash
  • Liquid soap
  • Birta scouring agent
  • Oxalic acid
  • HCl
  • Coroline White
  • Coroline blue
  • Levocal WS
  • Levelcell FTS
  • Spectrum navy
  • blue3G Red 3BLS
  • Ammonium Sulphate
  • Sodium Sulphide
  • Common Salt
  • Hexameta Phosphate
  • SVAT
  • Sulphur Blue MRJN
  • Sulphur Black
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Zystab

 

 

 

 

6.2  Production Process of Textiles Industries

Almost all the Textiles industries possess similar technology and process. But the textiles industries goods production varies industry to industry. Textile manufacturing or production is a very complex process. The range of textile manufacturing is so long. It starts from fiber to finished products.

            6.1.1          Process Flow Chart of Textile Manufacturing

Spinning 

Weaving 

Dyeing +PrintingFinishing

Garments Manufacturing 

 

Flow Chart of Spinning

Blowroom 

Carding 

Drawing

Combing

Drawing

Roving Manufacturing

Ring Spinning 

Flow Chart of Weaving 

Yarn from spinning section

Doubling and Twisting 

Winding 

Creeling

Warping

Sizing

Winding on weavers beam

Weaving 

 

Flow Chart of Dyeing

Inspection of grey cloth

Stitching 

Cropping

Brushing

Singeing 

Desizing 

Scouring

Bleaching 

Souring

Washing

Drying

Mercerizing

Dyeing 

Aftertreatment

Finishing 

Inspection

Packing

Baling

Flow Chart of Printing 

Inspection of grey cloth

Stitching 

Cropping

Brushing

Singeing 

Desizing 

Scouring

Bleaching 

Souring

Washing

Drying

Mercerizing

Printing 

Aftertreatment

Finishing 

Inspection

Packing

Baling 

Flow Chart of  Garment Manufacturing

 

Design / Sketch

Pattern Design

Sample Making

Production Pattern

Grading

Marker Making

Spreading

Cutting

Sorting/Bundling

Sewing/Assembling

Inspection

Pressing/ Finishing

Final Inspection

Packing

Despatch

 

 

 

 

Production Flow chart of Textile Dyeing

Scouring in Jigger

Inputs   Process   Risk/hazard
Fabric

Cold water/ Electricity

Man power

Æ  

Washing

 

Æ Risk of Accident
  È    
Detergent

Water/Steam

Electricity

Man Power

Æ Cleaning Æ Chemical Exposure

Risk of accident

È    
Water/Steam

Electricity

Man Power

Æ  

Hot Washing

Æ  

Chemical Exposure

Risk of accident

È
Soda Ash

Hydrogen peroxide

Water/Steam

Electricity

Man power

Æ  

Scouring

Æ Chemical Exposure

Risk of accident

È    
Water/Steam

Electricity

Manpower

Æ  

Hot Washing

Æ Risk of burns
È    
Water

Electricity

Man power

Æ Cold washing Æ Risk of accident
È    
Acetic Acid

Water

Electricity

Manpower

Æ  

Finishing

Æ Chemical Exposure

È

                                                Wet Fabric

 

 

White polyester viscose fabric dyeing in jet.

Inputs   Process   Risks/Hazards
Fabric

Water/Steam

Oxalic Acid

HCl Brita

Scour

Electricity

Manpower

Æ  

Scouring

Æ Chemical Exposure

Risk of accident

    È  
Water

Electricity

Æ Cooling Æ  Water
  È  
Water/Steam

Caroline white

”   “ Blue

”   “ Violet

Aluminum Sulphate

Levocol WS

Acetic Acid

Electricity

Manpower

Æ Dyeing Æ Chemical Exposure

Risk of accident

  È  
Water

Electricity

Æ Cooling Æ Water (Recycle)
  È    
Water

Electricity

Æ 1st Washing Æ Waste water
  È    
Water

Electricity

Æ 2nd washing Æ Waste water

È

Wet Fabric

Jigger Dyeing for (Cotton Parts)

 

Inputs   Process   Risks/Hazards
Wet Fabric

Water

Electricity

Æ Washing Æ No discharge
    È    
Caustic Soda, Steam

Electricity

Manpower

Æ Souring Æ Waste water and Vapor
    È    
Water

Electricity, Steam

Manpower

Æ Hot Washing Æ Waste water and Vapor
    È    
Water

Hydrochloric Acid

Electricity, Steam

Manpower

Æ Neutralization Æ  

Waste water

Vapor

 

 

    È    
Water

Steam, Electricity

Æ Hot Washing Æ Waste water

Vapor

  È  
Water

Sulphur Blue MRG

Sulphur Black

Sodium Sulphide

Common Salt, Soda Ash

Hexamate Phosphate

Electricity, Steam

Manpower

Æ Dyeing Æ  

 

 

Waste water

Vapor

Color

È
Water

Electricity

Manpower

Æ Cold water washing Æ  

Waste water

 

È
Water

Saramed SVAT

Acetic acid

Electricity, Steam

Manpower

Æ Neutralization Æ Waste water

Vapor

È
Water, Detergent

Steam

Æ Soaping Æ Waste water

Vapor

È
Water

Steam, Electricity

Æ Hot Washing Æ Waste water

Vapor

È

                          Wet Fabrics             

 

 

 

            6.1.2          Process Description

The major manufacturing process of Textile Dyeing processes for Polyester Viscose fabric are described in brief as follows:

 

Batch Preparation

The grey fabric is received in length and it is stitched, repaired, measured and weighed before loading to Jigger or jet machine. The weighed grey fabric in the form of length is loaded into the jigger uniformly for scouring. The jigger machine is filled with water up to the required level and run the machine to wet the fabric completely.

 

Washing

The wetted fabric is washed with continuous flow of cold water for an hour and drained out the washed water. The jigger is again filled with water as required and detergent or liquid soap is added accordingly. Then the machine is run and the steam is passed until the water is heated as required (850 C). And the water is drained out. The cleaned fabric is washed in running hot water for some minute and again wastewater is drained out.

 

Scouring

The jigger is filled again with fresh water. The required chemicals such as Birta scour, Soda ash, Hydrogen peroxide, Ztabetc are added in water. Then the machine is run and at the same time stream is passed into the water. The scouring process is continued until the grey fabric is completely free from the impurities present in the fabric. The scouring process is performed at about temperature 850 C. The more temperature is better. But due to open jigger the temperature can not be raised more than this. The scouring process is continued for 4 hours Lastly the hot spent water is drained out. There is no system of heat recovery and recycle of the wastewater. The drained water is discharged directly to nearby drain without any treatment.

 

Neutralization

After the completion of the scouring process in the jigger machine, machine is filled with fresh water and the fabric is washed in running hot water for an hour and lastly the wastewater is drained out. When all hot wastewater is drained out, the machine is again filled with cold water and run the machine for an hour with continuous running cold water and the wastewater is drained out. At last the jigger machine is again filled with fresh water and required quantity of acetic acid is added and the machine is run until the fabric is finished well as required. The wastewater is drained out. The scoured fabric is unloaded in a trolley.

 

Dyeing

Well-scoured fabric is loaded into the Jet machine for dyeing of polyester part. And the water is added into the jet machine as required. There is no system to quantify the quantity of water.

After the completion of water adding, the machine is run for few minutes so that the fabric is well wetted. After the fabric is well wetted, the steam is passed so that the water inside the Jet machine is heated up to 600 C. Then at first already weighed required chemicals are added in to the running jet machine and the dyes are added 5 – 10 minutes after addition of chemicals. The steam is continued to pass till the temperature reached up to 1300 C.  And it holds for some time at this temperature. After dyeing process is completed, the hot spent wastewater is drained out. After dyeing, the cold water is circulated so that the fabric is cooled down to 650 C. The waste warm water is collected in to the general water storage tank.

 

 Reduction

The jet machine is again filled with cold water and caustic soda and Hydro are added as recommended. The steam is passed and the machine is run at 650 C for some time. The spent waste – water is drained out.

 

Washing

The jet machine is filled with cold water and run for some time. The washed water is drained out. The Jet machine is filled again with cold water and run for some time so that the fabric is well washed. The washed water is drained out. The dyed fabric of polyester parts is unloaded in trolley. The dyed fabric in twisted form is unfolded or spread.

 

Alkali treatment (Scouring)

The well spread polyester part dyed fabric is loaded in jigger machine for viscose part dyeing.

The jigger machine is filled with water as required and the fabric is wetted. The caustic soda added and the steam is passed to heat the water. The machine is run for 2 hours at 80 – 850 C and lastly the waste water is drained out.

 

Neutralization

After the treatment with caustic soda, the fabric is washed with running hot water for some minutes and waste – water is drained out. The jigger is again filled with water and Hydrochloric acid is added as required to neutralize the fabric at higher temperature and wastewater is drained out after 1- 1.5 hours. After neutralization the jigger is filled with water and steam is passed. The fabric is washed in running hot water for some time. The wastewater is drained out.

 

Dyeing

After hot washing the jigger is again filled with cold water and required chemicals including common salt are added as recommended and steam is passed. When the temperature is reached as required dyes (sulphur) are added and the machine is continued to run for 1–2 hour. Lastly the wastewater is drained out. After proper dyeing, the jigger is again filled with cold water and wash in running cold water for an hour and wastewater is drained out. Then the fabric is neutralized with acetic acid and other chemical and waste water is drained out.

 

Soaping

The neutralized fabric is treated with detergent at higher temperature to get shining and waste – water is drained out. During hot washing fabric is washed in running hot water for some time and the wastewater is drained out.  After well washing, the fabric is unloaded in trolley and kept for finishing.

 

Finishing

The first step of finishing is done in stentor to get smooth surface and remove the shrinkage remained after dyeing. Using some body agent and other chemicals carries out the finishing. The decatise means ironing. The fabric is passed through decatise machine to get smooth and well packed fabric. Lastly the quality of fabric is checked. for defects according to some adopted standard. And according to market demand the fabric is measured and cut and rolled manually and packed in plastic film and then in cartoon boxes.

 

 

 

7.          Occupational Risk and Hazards in Textile Industries

A hazard is anything with potential for producing an accident. Risk is the probability of a hazard resulting in an accident. Many types of occupational hazards exiting in all textile industries. The Mechanical, physical, chemical, Ergonomic and physiological hazards are the prime which effect the worker health as well as productivity of industry. Exposure of cotton disease called Bysinosis found in many cotton textile mill workers.The Symptoms are chest tightness, breaking problem, asthma and irritation in the respiratory track.

The study found that accumulation of workers, improper condition of the machine, high noise level, ergonomic problem faced by the worker, dust problems, poor lighting,ventilation and unaware of personal protective equipment are main OHS issues in these industries. The workers are uneducated and most of them do not know OHS concern at workplace.

To maintain the quality and production, the health of worker is essential. The most important Hazard in occupational is noise. To control the noise level in the company premises and outside the company necessary action must be taken that noise regulation must be adopted. The Main cause of noise problem in the weaving and spinning industry is due to the poor design, overload and old machinery.In industries is noise is a big problem that affects the human peace and increase the stress.The musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are caused by continuous work, lifting high weight, doing job without appropriate procedures.Textile industries is also a chemical based industry and these industries are using some of the hazardous chemicals. Most of the textile industries of Nepal having are operating dyeing process by manual based, where workers are directed exposed to the chemical hazards. There are numerous health and safety (H&S) issues associated with the textile industry.

Most of the working activity is performed in textile industries, presents higher or lower accident hazards. The textile industry is characterized by the presence of a wide typology of machines and equipment, with automatic or manual transport systems connecting the various machines and departments, with dwell and storing areas; therefore the maximum attention must be paid by the operator, who has to comply scrupulously with the procedures and the active and passive safety systems with which modern machines are largely equipped. Often the distraction or the excess of ″confidence″ with the machines are the occasions for accident hazards.

 

 

 

 

 

The risks of damages and diseases for the human organism in the textile industry can have following causes:

Unhealthy microclimate:

This is the case in particularly of the dye-houses, the environment of which is characterized by a high humidity level and by the presence of more or less harmful or irritant fumes, which are often associated with high temperatures and with an insufficient change of air. Also in certain spinning departments the necessary humidity rate, often combined with a certain presence of dust in the air, can result in breathing problems. The fibre dust which is emitted mostly when processing vegetal fibres can cause, in the more sensible subjects, an irritation of the bronchus, associated with a continuous production of mucus, and originate with the time chronic diseases as pharyngitis, tracheitis and bronchitis;

Noise:

Noise represents in various departments and above all in weaving mills a problem of primary importance, especially if there is not enough room available and no adequate
soundproofing intervention on the machine and on the rooms have been carried out. A high noise level can  entail a reduction in the functions and other secondary collateral effects.The needs of having the possibility to control fabric quality prevent any casing or partial shielding of the weaving machines, it is however possible to correct the acoustics of the working room. The mostly used materials are:

  • glass wool baffles put in a glass fabric envelope and hang up on the ceiling;
  • glass fibre panels with an interspace between panel and adjoining wall;

 

These measures, unfortunately, are not very effective, so that the personnel are anyway compelled to use the devices for individual protection. In fact, these measures reduce the noise level only by 1 to 1.5 dBA between the weaving machines and by 2 to 3 dBA between the beams and in the department passageways.

 

Noise is caused by the vibration of the mechanical parts of the machine. These parts can be either in motion (various kinematic motions) or standing (structural parts, boxes, casings). The moving parts are the main origin of vibrations, which are then transmitted to the other parts of the machine. The vibrations are the higher, the more intense are the load variations to which the moving elements are submitted: sley, heald frames, weft inserting elements.

These movements are alternative motions and have rather high operation frequency levels; as such motions generate the maximum load variation values on the involved mechanical elements, it is easily understandable that the resulting vibrations and the pertaining noise, can attain very high values. The noise of a machine depends therefore to a very large extent on the operating speed but also on the machine equipment viz. on its composition, as this entails a different quantity and typology of the mechanical units, each with different vibration mode. For this reason the weaving machine manufacturers are following two well-known basic lines in their production:

 

  1. noise reductionalready at the designing stage;
  2. reduction of the noise reaching the operator by means of physical barriers between the noise sources and the subject (casings).

 

A further possibility could be, as previously indicated, the modification of the mill acoustics. In fact, although a great deal of progress has been accomplished to reduce noise in the weaving rooms, there is still a long way to go. Industry need only to consider that the noise emitted by a modern rapier machine is about 90 dBA.  The noise is not only annoying, but can be harmful to health and at the end increase the social costs.

Illumination, working position, precision, rhythm, repetitiveness, turnover system:

Various tasks require a considerable stress on the sight, or need body postures which have to be maintained long time, or require much attention, rapidity of execution, repetitiveness at very short intervals, temporary adaptations which can be the source of various pathologies both at physical and at psychical level.

Ginning Industry

The cotton in a machine which is used to separate the cotton fiber from the seeds and the cotton send to the textile for making yarn. The one of main Hazard in ginning industry is fire, the causes of fire happens in the Ginning Industry are Electrical, Manmade Behavior, spark from the Machine and stored Raw cotton in sunlight and other causes.

 

Working and Living Condition of Worker

All workers, whether they are willingly to work or non will to work they are forced to work for 12 hours. These 12 hours does not include overtime. some worker’s complaint that they are forcing to work more than that time. As per Labor act 2048 working hours of Adults is 8 hrs a day.

 

Unprotected Working Condition

As we know that inhalation of cotton fiber leads to BYSONIS. So, it is compulsory to use masks for these working Environment but no one following these safety measure.

 

Details of work environment of Ginning industry

Parameters Range Mean
Noise(dBA) 88-92 90
Lightning(lux) 45-63 54
Temperature(.c) 28-30 29
Humidity(%) —– 56.41

 

Spinning industry:

Spinning is the major part of textile industry. The textiles are fabricated into clothes. Noise is the main hazard in textile industry. The fire accidents occur in textile mills are often. The Hazards in the spinning mills are more compare to other sectors of textile industry because the Raw material cotton exposed to the fire easily. In spinning major hazard is cotton dust causes many health problems to the workers.

 

Physiological Hazards

Causes Health Impact Options
Uncomfortable work station and height Pain in hand and legs Importance to ergonomics
Repetitive strain injuries Wrist, neck, shoulder, neck, knee, ankle Proper working posture
Not interested to work Physiological problem Give counseling
Production target Stress to the worker Set achievable target

 

Physical Hazards Monitoring Result

Parameters Location Range Mean
Lighting, lux Blow Room 78-109 93.5
Spinning Area 51-60 55.5
Noise, dBA Spinning Area 90-95 92.5
Temperature, oC Preparatory Unit 24-30 27
Spinning room 28-35 31.5
Humidity, % Preparatory Unit 51.61
Spinning room 56.41

            Exposure to biological agents

In some activities, such as carding and willowing, workers may be exposed to biological agents such as anthrax, clostridium tetani(the causative agent for tetanus), and coxiellaburnetti(which causes Q fever). Exposure to biological agents can result in allergies and respiratory disorders.

            Psychosocial issues in the textiles sector

Work-related stress has been defined as being experienced when the demands of the work environment exceed the workers’ ability to cope with or control them. Work-related stress may be an issue in some areas of the textiles sector, being associated for example with repetitive and fast paced work, and where the worker has no influence on how the job is done.

 

 

 

Findings of OSH Issues in Textile Industry

As per the findings of earlier study the Occupational Safety and Health in the industry is related to risk of accident, heat, Handling of chemicals including dyes, ergonomics and housekeeping. It demands good working environment and good working practice for higher productivity and better health of employees.

 

OSH Issues Location Areas of improvement Remarks
Chemical (dyes) Exposure Chemical Storage and Handling §  Improvement in storing and handling of hazardous dyes and chemicals. –    Less exposure of chemicals
Heat Washing and Dyeing §  Better ventilation system.

§  Prevention of heat at source.

§  Awareness creation to employees.

§  Better process control.

–    Less exposure of Heat

–    Higher workers productivity.

Risk of Accident Washing, Dyeing and Printing §  Prevention of spillage on floors.

§  Good housekeeping practices.

–    Motivated and productive workers.
Housekeeping Storage

Transportation system

§  Safe and efficient storage and transportation system.

§  Safe and organized way of transportation.

–    Less accident

–    Higher productivity

Fire Whole Plant §  Elimination of source of ignition.

§  Organized system for fighting of fire.

–    Less risk of fire.
Welfare Facilities Whole plant §  Introducing of basic need of welfare facility for motivate the employees. –    Motivated and productive workers.

 

 

 

8.          Present Situation of Risk and Hazards in Visited Industries

There are 153textile industries in operation in Nepal. Exposure of Noise, dust, high heat/humidity and risk of fire are major occupational risk in all textile industries. Exposure of dyes and chemical were found very high where dyeing process doing in textile industries. Housekeeping is the common problems for these all industries.

 

The textile industry consists of a number of units engaged in spinning, weaving, dyeing, printing, finishing and a number of other processes that are required to convert fibre into a finished fabric or garment. There are several safety and health issues associated with the textile industry.

 

The major safety and health issues in the textile industry can be stated as under:

  • Exposure to cotton dust
  • Exposure to chemicals
  • Exposure to noise
  • Ergonomic issues

The workers engaged in the processing and spinning of cotton are exposed to significant amounts of cotton dust. Exposure to cotton dust and other particles leads to respiratory disorders among the textile workers. The fatal disease of byssinosis, commonly known as brown lung, is caused among people working in the textile industry on account of excessive exposure to cotton dust. The symptoms of this disease include tightening of the chest, coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath.

            Exposure to physical agents

Workers may be exposed to noise and vibrations, for example during weaving, spinning, sewing, twisting, and cutting. Exposure to loud noise can result in permanent hearing damage such as noise-induced hearing loss and tinnitus. Exposure to vibration, particularly together with risk factors for MSDs, can lead to long-term harm. Electromagnetic fields may also be found in some workplaces in the textiles sector.

Noise:

Noise represents in various departments and above all in weaving mills a problem of primary importance, especially if there is not enough room available and no adequate
soundproofing intervention on the machine and on the rooms have been carried out. In such cases the alternative is the use of individual safety devices. A high noise level can  entail a reduction in the functions and other secondary collateral effects.The highest noise levels are to be found in the weaving rooms, where the operators are exposed to levels of 94 to 100 dBA. The needs of having the possibility to control fabric quality prevent any casing or partial shielding of the weaving machines, it is however possible to correct the acoustics of the working room.

            Exposure to dusts and fibres

The exposure of workers to dusts from material such as silk, cotton, wool, flax, hemp, and sisal can occur during weaving, spinning, cutting, ginning, and packaging. Division of tasks along gender lines may mean that women are exposed to organic dusts more than men, with respiratory diseases being diagnosed more often in women than men. Exposure to fibres and yarns may cause nasal or bladder cancer.

Chemical hazards

Many different groups of chemical substances are used in the textiles sector, including dyes, solvents, optical brighteners, crease-resistance agents, flame retardants, heavy metals, pesticides, and antimicrobic agents. They are used in dyeing, printing, finishing, bleaching, washing, dry cleaning, weaving slashing/sizing, and spinning.  Respiratory and skin sensitisers can be found in the textiles industry, for example textiles fibres, reactive dyes, synthetic fibres, and formaldehyde. The textile industry has been evaluated as a sector with an increased carcinogenic risk. Several studies have showed an increased risk of nasal, laryngeal and bladder cancer in women.

 

The use of alkalis and acids and the treatment of cloth with boiling liquor expose the workers to the risk of burns and scalds. Aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzol, toluol and xylol, solvent naphtha’s and aromatic amines such as aniline dyes are dangerous chemicals to which workers are likely to be exposed. Many dyestuffs are skin irritants that cause dermatitis; in addition, workers are tempted to use harmful mixtures to remove dye stains from their hands.

 

Organic solvents used in the processes and for the cleaning of machines may themselves cause dermatitis or render the skin vulnerable to the irritant action of the other harmful substances that are used. Furthermore, they may be the cause of peripheral neuropathy.Storage of all chemical including dye in haphazard way there is no any separation between different chemicals. In store also seen the damaged sacks. Due to unscientific storage/ handling system industry losing the chemicals and man-hour substantially.

Risk of Accidents

The textiles sector has many hazards that can cause injury to workers, from transport in the workplace (lift truck), dangerous large work equipment and plant, to the risk of slips from a wet working environment. Workers being struck by objects, such as moving machinery parts and vehicles are a significant cause of injury in the sector. There also exists the risks of fire and explosions, for example from heating plants used for vapour generation.

 

Serious scalding accidents have occurred when hot liquor has been accidentally admitted to a washing and dyeing in which a worker has been arranging the cloth to be treated. This can occur when a valve is accidentally opened or when hot liquor is discharged into a common discharge duct from another washing and dyeing on the range.

            Musculoskeletal disorders

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the most common work-related health problem in all textile industries, with almost one in four workers reporting backache and one in five complaining of muscular pains. Manual handling, the lifting, holding, putting down, pushing, pulling, carrying or movement of a load, is the largest cause of injury in the textiles industries. Manual handling can cause either cumulative disorders from the gradual deterioration of the musculoskeletal system, such as lower pack pain, or acute trauma such as cuts or fractures due to accidents. Working in awkward postures, such as during spinning, cutting, product control, and packaging, Repetitive movements, such as during spinning, cutting, product control, and packaging, Fatigue from manual handling, during the storage, inspection, treatment, shipping, finishing, and cutting of textiles.

Heat and ventilation

Working temperature in the main plant was very hot and humid (around 44OC). There is also accumulation of vapors and fumes can be seen visually, it is due to hot climate condition, insufficient natural opening, insufficient provision of exhausts system and open jigger machine.  Exposure to high temperature may cause the heat stroke, dehydration to the exposed workers and it also decreased the workers’ productivity.

Housekeeping

Work place seems to be a very haphazard. Industry has not any system to manage the housekeeping resulting there is risk of accident and clothes are contaminated with dirt too.

Emergency Preparedness

Presence of flammable raw materials like cotton and polyster fibers and fabrics and chemicals like solvent, kerosene, dyestuff gives high risk of fire in the industry. All most no industry has specified and organized emergency preparedness system. Need to be  precautions against fire and explosion it includes developing a complete emergency preparedness system. Such as communication system, elimination of all sources of ignition, prohibition of smoking, ensuring fire exits are not blocked and are well maintained, provision of appropriate fire extinguishers,(Dry chemical powder type fire extinguisher in plant area, Foam types of fire extinguishers for chemical firing, Carbon dioxide type fire extinguisher for control and electrical panel, and water type fire extinguisher for storage and office room), training of staff in firefighting procedures. Compressed air cylinder with mask is needed for controlling of fire in risky zone.  It is also needed to make provision of hydrant system around the factory building including small HSD operated Mini Generator.

 

Monitoring of the Occupational Hazards

Some of the hazards were monitored during field visit and generates the primary data. The primary data and secondary available both studied and presented in a result and discussion.

 

 

 

 

Accident Records in Textiles industries

SN Name of the Textiles industries Mill Accident, FY 2072/73
Minor Major Fatal
1 Aarnika Processing Industries Pvt. Ltd 12 0 0
2 Ankita Textile 17 0 0
3 Kriti Textile Industries Pvt. Ltd. 06 0 0
4 Nepo Industries Pvt. Ltd. 03 0 0
5 Shree Siddhi Textile 15 0 0
6 Triveni Textile Industries Pvt. Ltd. 36 0 0

 

Discussion:

The data showed that only minor accidents were happened in all visited industries. During the study it was found that none of the industries having the recorded data of accidents.

 

Noise Level

The noise levels measured in the seven industries are as follows:

Location Noise Level, dBA Permissible Exposure Level (PEL),  dBA Remarks
1 2 3 4 5 6
Weaving 100 101 99 101 100 102 90 noise level are high as compare to permissible limits
Dyeing 94 90 91 85
Finishing 76 79 80 84 85 76

Source: Field Survey, 2017

Discussion:

The measured noise level indicated that most all the textile industries exceeded noise exposure level in compare with permissible 90 dBAlevel.

 

Light (Illumination) Level

The Light levels measured in the seven industries are as follows:

Location Noise Level, dBA Recommended Minimum  Light Level, Lux Remarks
1 2 3 4 5 6
Weaving 250 200 250 150 180 170 90 Light  level needs to be improve
Dyeing 150 220 170 170
Finishing 370 310 340 280 250 350

Source: Field Survey, 2017,

Discussion:

The data showed that illumination level slightly poor in weaving and dyeing units.

Heat and ventilation

The temperature inside the shop floor is high and humid. Because of the lack of insulation of steam pipelines, sufficient natural opening, none provision of exhaust system and congested dyeing vat installation, the vapours and gases are accumulated inside to raise the temperature of the working places. There is no adequate provision of ventilation or air circulating system.  Exposure to high temperature may cause heat stroke and dehydration to the exposed workers besides causing lower workers productivity.

 

 

 

 

 

9.          Legislation and Standards

None of any directly implemental rule and regulation has yet been set especially for Textileindustries. The labour act 2048 has some provision on OSH, which explains the whole sectors of industries. According to that provision industries should minimize the any risk and hazards in industries.

 

Pertaining to Clause 3 of Environmental Act (1997) the rule number 10 of Industrial sector under schedule 1 of the Environmental Regulation (1998) prescribes only Preliminary Environmental Examination for establishment of textile industries.  Thus as per the existing Acts and Regulations textile industries come under the category of less polluting industries.  Regarding the effluent discharge standards on Textile Industries, Ministry of Population and Environment (MOPE) has published effluent discharge standards on Cotton textile industries.

 

 

10.     Conclusion and Recommendation

Exposure of noise, dust and hazardous chemicals are the core Occupational Safety and Health issue in textile industries. Old and traditional machineries and process generates the high noise and dust in all textile industries. The chemical exposure level is high in dyeing and printing processing steps.  Manual operation, old technology and lacking of control measure are the main causes of generation of chemical exposure seen in these industries. The insufficient ventilation system, low illumination, bad housekeeping and unscientific cleaning of floors are also contributing to raise the high risk/hazards in industries.  The accident record is very high in due to slippery floor and manual handling.

 

The specific hazards such problems as substandard lighting, noise, incompletely guarded machinery, lifting and carrying of heavy and/or bulky objects, poor housekeeping and so on remain ubiquitous. Therefore, a well-formulated and implemented safety and health programme that includes the training and effective supervision of workers is a necessity

 

The existing risk and hazards of the textile industryshould have adoptedfor minimization exposure. A better OSH practice provides some basic prevention measures that can be taken to minimize risks of accidents and to ensure a safer working environment in the textile industry. It is the responsibility of the management team and industry workers, to implement appropriate safety and health practices.   Each textileindustry must comply with national safety and health requirements, and international norms and practices.

            Recommendation to maintain better OSH condition in Textile Industries

            The following steps to be taken to find out the OSH issues and implementation of recommended option for achieving safe and healthy working environment in textile industries.

            Risk Assessment

Nepal although not having a legal requirement for risk evaluation or assessment applies to all employers but risk assessment is vital to identify specific OSH problems in industries. The all textile industries must complete risk assessment time to time at least once a year. The guidelines of risk assessment are as follows:

Step 1 Identifying hazards and those at risk

Looking for those things at work that have the potential to cause harm, and identifying workers who may be exposed to the hazards. Using workers’ knowledge helps to ensure hazards are spotted and workable solutions implemented. Consultation encourages workers to commit themselves to health and safety procedures and improvements. A risk assessment should cover all workers regardless of whether they are employed on long- or short-term contracts.

 

Risk assessment should take account of differences in workers, such as by gender, age, or disability.

Step 2 Evaluating and prioritizing risks

Evaluate how likely it is that the hazard will lead to harm or injury, and how severe that injury is likely to be. Consider what control measures are in place and whether they are sufficient. It is essential that the work to be done to eliminate or prevent risks is prioritized. The focus for cost-effective and sustainable risk management should be on collective protection and preventative measures.

Step 3 Deciding on preventive action

Identifying the appropriate measures to eliminate or control the risks. List the preventive measures needed in order of priority, then take action, involving the workers and their representatives in the process. Targeting the underlying problems is the most cost-effective method of risk management.

Step 4 Taking action

Risk assessment is the first step to successful risk management. Put in place the preventive and protective measures through a prioritisation plan (most probably all the problems cannot be resolved immediately) and specify who does what and when, when a task is to be completed, and the means allocated to implement the measures. Interventions should be agreed with the workforce, either directly or through worker safety representatives. The agreed solutions should be carefully implemented, monitored and evaluated.

Step 5 Monitoring and reviewing

The assessment should be reviewed at regular intervals to ensure it remains up to date. It has to be revised whenever significant changes occur in the organisation or as a result of the findings of an accident or “near miss” investigation.

 

Dust Control

The workroom should not be more than 0.2mg\m3 and controlled by some specific task. The cotton dust should be dumped with proper care and avoid storing in open container. Excessive drying of materials should be avoided by humidification in working environment,if it dry the dust will fly fast. The following methods to control dust is:

(a) proper education about cotton dust affects health.

(b) proper health checkup to the affected workers

(c) effective dust control method should be implement from further affecting.

 

The some of the specific hazards can be eliminating or minimized by taking following actions in in textile industries.

Hazard Consequences Action to be Taken
Noise Noise induced hearing loss, Tinnitus ·     Isolation of the machine and silencer must be kept.

·     Inverted drive control noise in ring frame

·     Proper maintenance lubricating control noise.

Dust Cause respiratory problems and causes Byssinosis (a disease caused by cotton dust) ·     Dust collector

·     Proper housekeeping

·     Necessary PPE should wear by workers

Light Eye strain and glaring ·     Proper lighting condition
Lifting Heavy Weight Muscular-Skeletal Disorders ·     Employees should keep backbone straight while lifting load.

·     Pull the load as close to the body

·     Lift and carry loads with straight arms.

Fire Loss of life, Damages to the equipment’s ·     Fire hydrant system and sprinkler system
Welding operation Spark ignition is very dangerous ·     Restrict unauthorized person to do welding
Electrical short circuit happens If no trip occurs its get sparks and get fire ·     ACB (Air Circuit Breaker)

·     MCB (Motor Circuit Breaker)

Smoking Easily gets fire ·     Safety signs and workers must aware of not using any ignition product
Improper Earthing Trip occurs ·     All circuits to be enclosed in a proper circuit
Improper Isolation Electric shock ·     All circuits to be enclosed in a proper circuit
Moisture Proper wiring ·     Moisture to kept in control
Motor high speed rotating due to high voltage Cause problem to the machine ·     Circuit breaker must be individual
Usage of old wire Not proper current flow ·     Use of wires as per Electrical standard
Input power cable exceeds more output Cable melting and switch becomes heat ·     Input wire must be more power than output wire
Looping in the running line Electronics PCB ·     Avoid looping
Electrical Maitenance ECB board check the connection Grease the motor frequently ·     Needs preventive maintenance

 

Chemical Storage and Disposal of Waste

Dyes, chemicals and other auxiliaries should be stored in a separate work area and access to this area should be limited to trained personnel. The storage area should be kept relatively cool and dry (within the range specified in MSDS), and all items must be recorded in log books and clearly labelled in a language understood by the chemical handlers. Internationally recognized symbols should also be used and all industry workers should be trained to recognize them, this isparticularly important if literacy levels are low.

First Aid

There should always be at least one member of staff on each shift that is trained in “First Aid” and who is made responsible for all first aid requirements during their shift. A protocol is also required to ensure that every industry worker knows who the first aid person is and their usual whereabouts so that they can contact them quickly in an emergency. At least one first aid box should be made available in an area that is accessible to all the workers. In larger industries several boxes may be required in different areas to ensure that they can easily be reached in an emergency. The box should be clearly marked and include some basic materials such as the following:

  • Liquid antiseptic
  • Band aid
  • Sterile gauze
  • Sterile cotton
  • Pain killers

 

The first aid box should be properly maintained by a nominated person and checked regularly. An accident report book should be kept and an entry should be added for every accident or incident. Identifying and monitoring the type of incidents that occur should help to improve safety within an industry.

 

Personal Protecting Equipment

To minimize exposure to noise, dusts and hazardous chemicals appropriate personal protective gear should be used. This may include ear plug, gloves, safety goggles and dust masks depending on the chemicals being handled. It is not necessary to wear gloves or a mask all the time but the advice on the MSDS should be referred to and followed.

 

Working Environment

The working environment needs to be kept as dry as possible to prevent accidents. Signs informing people of damp and wet floors must be displayed when required. Dust should also be minimized or extracted to reduce inhalation of particles. Exit passageways and stair cases must never be blocked with obstacles, and all stairs should have hand rails. Emergency exit doors should never be locked. Proper lighting and ventilation need to be ensured and machinery must be well maintained to avoid accidents. Head height should be sufficient in all areas to avoid accidents. Hazardous waste must be disposed of properly in accordance with manufacturers’ guidelines (MSDS) and national policies.

 

Training

Proper training on the use and maintenance of machinery and other equipment; Health and Safety; and Fire Hazards and Emergency, needs to be provided. Training should be repeated regularly – at least once a year. Health and Safety training would include information on the potential hazards of solvents and chemicals; preventive measures that can be taken to avoid accidents and to minimize exposure to all dyes and chemicals; and measures to take if such accidents or exposure do occur.

 

Fire Hazards and Emergency Evacuation training involves holding regular fire drills and all workers should be trained in the correct use of fire extinguishers and fire hoses. These should be easily available throughout the industry and regularly checked by a qualified assessor.

 

Lifting and Carrying Heavy Objects

According to the Health Safety Executive (HSE), it has been shown that musculoskeletal injuries are the most common type of injuries in the textile industries. Care should be taken when moving heavy objects, as is often required on the industry floor. Most musculoskeletal injuries occur due to improper ways of carrying or moving heavy objects. This can be minimized by sharing the weight between two workers or by using wheeled trolleys, and maintaining the correct posture when lifting and carrying these objects. These risks can also be better managed by identifying and assessing which tasks would cause serious risks of acute injury for example from lifting, or chronic injury from repetitive upper body work. The weights of sacks and boxes should be kept to 25kg or below and there should be job rotation and training provided on ways to prevent such injuries.

Signs

Sings are an important means of informing and reminding staff about safety and health issues. Issues where sings are important include;

  • Sufficient fire extinguishers should be made available and signs should be placed in prominent places so that people are aware of their presence.
  • Fire alarms and emergency lights should be present, and floor and emergency exit markings should be clearly visible in appropriate places.
  • There should also be signs saying “No Food and Drink” in areas such as the laboratory, store room and industry floor, and any other areas where it is not safe to consume food, for example because of the risk of contamination by chemicals.
  • Hazardous chemicals should be clearly marked in Nepali language and with clear symbols that people have been trained to recognise and understand.
  • Heavy objects should be marked as such to avoid musculoskeletal accidents.
  • Substances or items that present a fire hazard should be clearly labelled with the universally recognized symbol.
  • Signs should be placed near inflammable substances stating that it is not permitted to smoke or have open fires.
  • Showers and eye washes should be made available and clearly marked.

 

 

 

11.     References

  • American Conference of Govemmental Industrial Hygienists (1989) TLVs, Threshold Limit Values and Biological Expsure Indices for 1988-1989, Cincinnati, OH, p. 16
  • Central Institute for Labour Protection: Occupational safety and hygiene in textiles and clothing enterprises – Checklist & Guide for Employers, Warszawa, 1998 (in Polish).
  • European Agency for Safety and Health at Work Factsheet 42 Gender issues in safety and health at work; summary of an Agency report 2003
  • European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Factsheet 73 Hazards and risks associated with manual handling of loads in the workplace 2007
  • European Commission DG Enterprise and Industry, Development of the textiles and clothing industry web page, no date, http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/textile/development.htm
  • European Commission DG Enterprise and Industry, Overview of the textiles and clothing industry web page, no date, http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/textile/index_en.htm
  • Health and Safety Executive Health and safety in the textiles industries http://www.hse.gov.uk/textiles/index.htm
  • Cleaner Production Implementation in Industries Report, ESPS/DANIDA, 2001
  • Environmental, Health, and Safety Guidelines for Textile Manufacturing, IFC, World Bank Group.
  • Exposures ln the textile manufacturing industry, IARC, 1977, 1987
  • Health and Safety in the Textile Dyeing Industry; DFID, Bangladesh
  • Occupational health & safety in textile industry; international journal of research in engineering and technology.
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL)
  • Occupational Safety and Health Project Annual report.
  • W Kan..,”Occupational safety and health management system in textile industry” , international lconference textile & fashion 2012 july 3-4-12 bangok Thailand.
  • S Padmini..,” Unsafe work environment in garments industries”,journal of environment research and development, volume 7 no.1A 2012.
  • .,” Role of hazard control measure in occupational health and safety in the textile industry of Pakistan, pakj.agriscivol 47(1), 72-76,2010.

 

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